Procedure For Treating Ankle Arthritis

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Hallux Limitus

“Hallux limitus” is a disorder of big toe joint.  “Hallux” refers to the big toe and “limitus” refers to limitation of motion at the big toe joint.  The joint is located at the base of the big toe. Hallux limitus causes pain and stiffness in the joint, and with time it gets increasingly harder to bend the toe.  If left untreated, it can lead to “Hallux Rigidus” which is a form of degenerative arthritis.

This disorder, if left untreated, can be very troubling and even disabling, since we use the big toe whenever we walk, run, climb up, or even stand.

Because hallux limitus is a progressive condition, the toe’s motion decreases as time goes on. As the problem advances, the toe’s range of motion gradually decreases until it potentially reaches the end stage of “rigidus,” in which the big toe becomes stiff and arthritic or what is sometimes called a “frozen joint.” Commonly a bump (dorsal exostosis) is noted on top of the big toe joint.


  • Pain and stiffness in the big toe joint with activity
  • Difficulty and pain with walking, running squatting
  • Swelling around the joint
  • Bump (dorsal exostosis) on top of the big toe joint


  • Activity or work that increases stress on the big toe joint (squatting, stooping, kneeling)
  • Flat feet or excessive pronation
  • Long 1st metatarsal
  • Elevated 1st metatarsal (metatarsus primus elevatus)
  • Traumatic injury to the big toe joint resulting in osteochondral defect of the joint
  • Systemic disease that cause joint damage (Rheumatoid arthritis, lupus or gout)


X-rays help determine the presence of arthritis to the joint as well as to evaluate structural abnormalities, and bone spurs around the joint.

Non-Surgical Treatment:

Early treatment may prevent damage to the joint.

  • Shoe modifications. Stiff or rocker-bottom soles limit motion to the joint.
  • Orthotic devices. Custom orthotic devices may improve foot function.
  • Medications. Oral nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs), such as Naproxyn or ibuprofen, may be recommended to reduce pain and inflammation.
  • Cortisone injection. Corticosteroids injection may reduce inflammation and pain.
  • Physical therapy. Physical therapy may provide temporary relief.

Surgical Treatment:

 In some cases, surgery may be needs to address the condition.  A thorough physical exam and review of you x-ray can determine what procedure is needed to address the condition.

We encourage you to consult with an foot and ankle specialist for a complete assessment of you condition.

Dr. Jones Hormozi at Valley Foot & Ankle Center (VFAC) utilizes state-of-the-art technology, minimally invasive procedures, and advanced techniques to prevent and treat all conditions of the foot and ankle. This allows most patients to walk immediately after most procedures, and they are able to rapidly return to high levels of functioning with excellent outcomes.


Dr. Jones Hormozi is a Board Certified Podiatrist in Los Angeles. Dr. Hormozi is known for treating sports injuries in patients of all ages. He has treated and operated on professional athletes, semi professional athletes, college athletes and high school athletes. Dr. Hormozi is also Clinical Assistant Professor of Podiatric Medicine and Surgery at Western University of Health Sciences.

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